|On too many projects, the Construction Supervisor allows the Excavation Foreman to make most of the major decisions for the site work staging and planning. It seems to make sense to allow the Excavation Foreman to make these decisions, since his crews are doing the work. This assumption
causes many problems on projects that could have been easily avoided.
The Excavation Foreman generally focuses on the most efficient method to get his required work items done. Generally the excavator's goals can be visualized if the dirt were being moved with a stick; pushed from the high areas to the nearest low areas with a minimum of carrying. Sometimes the
most efficient method for the Excavation Foreman is also the best plan for the entire project. Many times, though, project complexities exist that are beyond the excavator’s scope of work. In these cases, the Construction Supervisor should make sure the planning considers what is best for the entire
project, not just for the Excavator.
A simple method that works well involves a color marked site plan that the Construction Supervisor develops just for job staging and planning. The Construction Supervisor needs to consider fill pile locations, topsoil pile locations, haul roads, building layout points, building material storage locations,
parking areas, office trailer locations, etc forion is defined as the detachment and transportation of soil particles. Rain falling on bare soil detaches particles and as the rainwater runs off soil erosion occurs in proportion to the water volume and velocity. The eroded soil particles are deposited when the
water slows and the soil particles settle.
Erosion can be controlled through both mechanical and vegetable measures. One of the most effective mechanical measures involves grading, or disturbing, only those areas immediately needed for construction. Limiting the area of exposed, bare soil greatly reduces erosion. This method of erosion
control can often appear to be at odds with the excavator's goal of completing the project quickly and efficiently. Adequate planning of the grading work, which always involves considering several different options, may reveal a solution that meets both the goals of erosion control and efficient grading.
Subsurface trench drains, discussed in the groundwater section of this chapter, are another means of controlling erosion. Trench drains can divert water at the top of a slope or collect and carry fast moving water away at the bottom of a slope. Swales and berms can also be used to divert and channel
run-off. Before leaving the site, this run-off must be slowed to allow the sediment to settle. Sediment basins are used to detain runoff and trap sediment. A well constructed sediment basin should have capacity to hold adequate runoff, prevent runoff short-circuits past the basin, and be accessible to
Vegetative measures to reduce erosion control can be very efficient and economical. The slope of the site and fertility of the soil help determine the effectiveness of vegetative measures. Straw, or other fibrous, mulch can be applied directly to soil slopes during an unfavorable time of year for seeding.
Straw mulches are usually applied at 1-1/2 tons per acre. Straw mulching must be anchored asphalt tack spray, straight blade, disking, or netting.
There are times in the year when permanent seeding is prohibited, but temporary seeding may be successful. Annual rye grass, small grain, sudangrass and millet are often used for temporary seeding and, with a little luck from the elements, do an excellent job of preventing erosion. The ideal
situation, generally, is to install permanent seeding as soon as grading is complete in an area. If required, sod can be placed in almost any weather conditions and can reduce erosion almost immediately.
What You should Know about Clearing and Grubbing?
The process of removing and disposing of brush and trees is described as clearing. Grubbing is defined as removal and disposal of stumps and roots. Clearing and grubbing is generally performed concurrently in order to ready the site for topsoil stripping and bulk excavation. Since clearing and
grubbing happens as the first work item on the project, it is usually critical to the project schedule. Therefore, the Construction Supervisor needs to understand the process of clearing and grubbing in order to control the project.
Clearing and grubbing is often thought of as a simple process, but there are many options and complexities involved. There are several methods of disposing of brush, trees and stumps, depending on project conditions and local ordinances. Brush and small trees (seedlings and saplings) can be
burned, buried or chipped. In order to discuss tree usage it is helpful to use the U.S. Forest Service size classification.
Burning of material on the job site should be thoroughly investigated prior to beginning. State environmental laws and local ordinances should be checked. If burning is allowed, it can be an efficient and low cost way of disposing of brush, trees and stumps. Usually a good, hot fire can be started with
brush and small trees. Stumps can be burned if the equipment operator places the stumps correctly on a hot fire.
Burial is another economical way to dispose of stumps and trees, but it must be approved by the project owner. Be aware that large stump holes, which are often filled in with loose, un-compacted soil, become settlement problems. Don't allow the Sitework Contractor to just bury at the most convenient
spot, causing a later problem for you or the Owner.
The actual procedure of burying stumps and logs is straight-forward although considerable care should be given to the location of buried items. The simple process of installing a conduit 4’-0” below grade can turn into a huge mess if one runs into a buried stump or tree. As this is often a problem that
one subcontractor unwittingly creates for another, the Construction Supervisor should be aware about the burying of material on the project site. Chipping, hauling away and sales to a lumber mill are also methods of disposal. These methods usually require less involvement for the Construction
While considering the clearing and grubbing, keep the following items in mind: amount and type of trees and brush, dangers from dead limbs, soil conditions when wet, possibility of working over frozen soil, and general access to the site.
What to Consider for Site and Building Demolition?
Site demolition includes removal of catch basins, manholes, underground pipe, asphalt paving, concrete paving, etc. The method of disposal of site demolition materials can have a large impact on a project. If the material is hauled to a dump site, the Construction Supervisor should know the dump site
location and be assured that the dumping meets all state and local ordinances.
I've had a major project can be stopped because a neighbor to the dump site complained and found that we didn't have the proper permits. It is simply not enough, in today's environment, to merely get permission of the landowner to place fill on their property.
If site demolition materials are also disposed on site (either buried or broken and used for rip rap) the Design Professional or Owner should give requirements for this type of use (i.e. maximum size of fill lift, equipment used to compact, maximum size piece allowable, requirements for wood, rebar,
etc. found in the materials, etc.).
Another important question concerning site demolition work is limits of work. The Construction Supervisor should be clear on what the limits are, who is responsible for establishing those limits in the field and who will be responsible for damages if those limits are exceeded. Limits should also be
established for specific items of demolition. For example if a catch basin and storm pipe crossing an existing street must be removed, the Construction Supervisor should help determine if the pavement will be chisel cut or saw cut and the width of the cut. The Construction Supervisor can be very
effective by keeping the information flowing if one subcontractor performs demolition and another restoration.
Building demolition can vary from removing some doors or walls in an existing structure to razing an entire building. The work is extremely varied and runs from the simple to the complex. Understand the demolition requirements before you start!
Building demolition work is usually not well understood at the onset of a project. Describing the work to be performed is necessarily tricky because it normally involves areas of unknowns. For example, it's difficult to know the material inside a wall that support a lintel. Regardless of the unknowns, the
Construction Supervisor must work to clarify the intent of the demolition work. Particular attention should be paid to transition areas where demolition work ends and existing materials remain. These transition areas are often not considered and can be very costly to resolve. Lastly, the Construction
Supervisor must understand the contracted responsibilities for demolition and try to reveal and resolve changes as soon as possible.
One item that requires special mention regarding building demolition is hazardous materials. Due to the technical, health and legal problems involved, asbestos, lead paint, or any other hazardous material should be removed by qualified, licensed personnel only. The liabilities are so huge with these
materials that the Construction Supervisor should defer decisions in this area to his employer.
Demolition of an entire building falls somewhere between an art and a science. Usually the responsibility will be let to one subcontractor. The Construction Supervisor should understand the method to be used, precautions used to project neighboring buildings, techniques, if any, of monitoring of
neighboring buildings for damage, dump site location and requirements, and proposed finish condition of site for next contractor to begin work.
What You should Know about Earthwork Excavation and Compaction?
Earth excavation and grading can be a fascinating part of a construction project. The powerful heavy equipment, used to best advantage by a skilled operator, is a joy to behold. The scope of the excavation job varies from digging footings for a small building to moving millions of cubic yards of earth.
The one thing all excavation jobs have in common, though, is that careful planning is the key to success.
There are several terms which should be defined. Excavation is often used as a broad term which includes cut (or excavation) and fill (or embankment). Cut is defined as removing material to lower the elevation of an area. Fill is defined as placing material to raise the elevation of an area. Compaction
must take place during a fill operation to increase the density of the soil material being placed. Another common breakdown in excavation work is bulk excavation and trench excavation.
Swell and shrinkage are two important, and often misunderstood, terms. Consider the simple example of digging a 1.0 cubic yard hole with a shovel and throwing the dirt into wheelbarrows. In the ground the 1.0 cubic yard of soil is in its virgin (or natural) state. Upon being shoveled into the
wheelbarrows the soil is in a loose (or lower density) state and probably has a volume of 1.2 to 1.4 cubic yards. This process of soil increasing in volume from its virgin state to a loose state is called swell.
Shrinkage, on the other hand, occurs when that same soil is placed back in the one cubic yard hole and is properly compacted. Depending on the soil type, the final volume could be 0.9 cubic yards or 1.1 cubic yards. The above explains why when one digs and refills a hole, sometimes there is not
enough soil to fill the hole and sometimes there is soil left over.
An excellen vary greatly from small machines that use 6-way tilt blades for fine grading to huge machines that need special permits to be hauled over bridges. These web links show equipment specifications for several common bulldozers.
The best method to remove rock in an excavation must be reassessed continually for changing conditions. However rock excavation is a fact of construction life and must be anticipated by the Construction Supervisor.
Prior to a project beginning, an Owner has probably already considered the possibility of rock in the excavation area and the associated costs. The Owner makes a decision during the design stage about the amount of geotechnical information required. The Owner has many exploratory options
available. From a simple test pit to percussion drilling to core drilling the owner has increasingly more expensive options that yield increasingly better data about the site underground.
For example, the Owner on a 100,000 SF building project may authorize twenty boring locations with split spoon soil samples taken until rock is reached and then core samples of rock. This information can be carefully studied by the Construction Supervisor and Sitework Contractor and used to help
make the project schedule. Knowing the type and quality of rock (from the core samples) and location of rock (from the soils boring) is a real advantage in jobsite planning.
Conversely, the Owner of a 100,000 SF building may decide to proceed with no geotechnical testing whatsoever. The decision about geotechnical testing is usually made by an Owner with no input from the Construction Supervisor.
All too often, though, some geotechnical testing information is available to the Construction Supervisor and is not properly utilized. The section on Soils and Geology helps you understand the terms in the geotechnical report.
A knowledge of the approximate location of the rock helps the Construction Supervisor to plan the sequence of steps following rock excavation. If rock is in one corner of a large building project, for example, the earth excavation could begin at the opposite end of the building in order to start foundation
work soonest. This simple example indicates the usefulness of rock core borings (which show the type and quality of rock encountered). Beginning the foundation work early would be a good idea if the rock could be removed by ripping. However, if the rock is extremely hard and requires substantial
blasting, it may be prudent to hold foundation work until the blasting is completed. The Construction Supervisor should coordinate these types of decisions and use all the technical date available.
Think about payment terms for rock on each project. Unclassified excavation stipulates that all rock or other unexpected materials (excluding hazardous materials) encountered in the sitework will be the responsibility of the Contractor at no change in contract cost. An unclassified excavation is
simpler from a book-keeping standpoint and places the responsibility for geotechnical conditions onto the Sitework Contractor.
Classified excavation, on the other hand, defines rock and makes provisions for measurement and payment of any rock encountered at an agreed upon unit price. This method places the rock payment responsibility onto the Owner. The Construction Supervisor must be aware if the excavation is
classified or unclassified. If classified, the Construction Supervisor must help set-up clearly understood procedures for definition and measurement of rock quantities.
Rock is removed by ripping, blasting, or breaking, depending on the rock type, quality and quantity. Ripping is a mechanical splitting of rock by inserting a steel point into a rock crevice and applying force. The force is usually supplied by a bulldozer. Blasting involves explosives placed in drill holes and
detonated. Breaking of rock by a hydrado to a construction project. Prior to the rain, the site may be dry, heavy equipment efficiently moving earth, the other trades smoothly performing their work. Within hours the project can be a sloppy, mud-hole with worker efficiency cut to about 10%. In many
cases, the change comes mostly from poor planning. In most areas of the world, the Construction Supervisor must remember a simple fact: IT WILL RAIN.Construction is the process of creating and building infrastructure or a facility. It differs from manufacturing in that manufacturing typically
involves mass production of similar items without a designated purchaser, while construction is typically done on location for a known client. Construction as an industry is six to nine percent of the gross domestic product of developed countries. Construction starts with planning, design, and
financing and continues until the project is built and ready for use.
Large scale construction is a feat of human multitasking. An Architect normally manages the job, and a construction manager, design engineer, construction engineer or Project manager supervises it. For the successful execution of a project, effective planning is essential. Those involved with the
design and execution of the infrastructure in question must consider the zoning requirements, the environmental impact of the job, the successful scheduling, budgeting, construction site safety, availability and transportation of building materials, logistics, inconvenience to the public caused by
construction delays and bidding, etc.Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form objects, systems or organizations, and comes from Latin constructionem (from com- "together" and struere "to pile up") and Old French construction. Construction is used as a verb: the act of
building, and a noun: how a building was built, the nature of its structure.
Types of construction
Military residential unit construction by U.S. Navy personnel in Afghanistan
In general, there are three sectors of construction: buildings, infrastructure and industrial. Building construction is usually further divided into residential and non-residential (commercial/institutional). Infrastructure is often called heavy/highway, heavy civil or heavy engineering. It includes large
public works, dams, bridges, highways, water/wastewater and utility distribution. Industrial includes refineries, process chemical, power generation, mills and manufacturing plants. There are other ways to break the industry into sectors or markets.
Engineering News-Record (ENR) is a trade magazine for the construction industry. Each year, ENR compiles and reports on data about the size of design and construction companies. They publish a list of the largest companies in the United States (Top-400) and also a list the largest global firms
(Top-250, by amount of work they are doing outside their home country). In 2014, ENR compiled the data in nine market segments. It was divided as transportation, petroleum, buildings, power, industrial, water, manufacturing, sewer/waste, telecom, hazardous waste plus a tenth category for other
projects. In their reporting on the Top 400, they used data on transportation, sewer, hazardous waste and water to rank firms as heavy contractors.
The Standard Industrial Classification and the newer North American Industry Classification System have a classification system for companies that perform or otherwise engage in construction. To recognize the differences of companies in this sector, it is divided into three subsectors: building
construction, heavy and civil engineering construction, and specialty trade contractors. There are also categories for construction service firms (e.g., engineering, architecture) and construction managers (firms engaged in managing construction projects without assuming direct financial responsibility
for completion of the construction project).
Building construction is the process of adding structure to real property or construction of buildings. The vast majority of building construction jobs are small renovations, such as addition of a room, or renovation of a bathroom. Often, the owner of the property acts as laborer, paymaster, and design
team for the entire project. However, all building construction projects include some elements in common – design, financial, estimating and legal considerations. Many projects of varying sizes reach undesirable end results, such as structural collapse, cost overruns, and/or litigation. For this reason,
those with experience in the field make detailed plans and maintain careful oversight during the project to ensure a positive outcome.
The National Cement Share Company of Ethiopia's new plant in Dire Dawa.
Commercial building construction is procured privately or publicly utilizing various delivery methodologies, including cost estimating, hard bid, negotiated price, traditional, management contracting, construction management-at-risk, design & build and design-build bridging.
Residential construction practices, technologies, and resources must conform to local building authority regulations and codes of practice. Materials readily available in the area generally dictate the construction materials used (e.g. brick versus stone, versus timber). Cost of construction on a per
square meter (or per square foot) basis for houses can vary dramatically based on site conditions, local regulations, economies of scale (custom designed homes are often more expensive to build) and the availability of skilled tradespeople. As residential construction (as well as all other types of
construction) can generate a lot of waste, careful planning again is needed here.
A site survey is an inspection of an area where work is proposed, to gather information for a design or an estimate to complete the initial tasks required for an outdoor activity. It can determine a precise location, access, best orientation for the site and the location of obstacles. The type of site survey
and the best practices required depend on the nature of the project. Examples of projects requiring a preliminary site survey include urban construction, specialized construction (such as the location for a telescope) and wireless network design.
In hydrocarbon exploration, for example, site surveys are run over the proposed locations of offshore exploration or appraisal wells. They consist typically of a tight grid of high resolution (high frequency) reflection seismology profiles to look for possible gas hazards in the shallow section beneath the
seabed and detailed bathymetric data to look for possible obstacles on the seafloor (e.g. shipwrecks, existing pipelines) using multibeam echosounders.
|In archaeology, earthworks are artificial changes in land level, typically made from piles of artificially placed or sculpted rocks and soil. Earthworks are often known as barrows in England, and mounds in North America. Earthworks can themselves be archaeological features, or
they can show features beneath the surface.[Earthworks of interest to archaeologists include hill forts, henges, mounds, platform mounds, effigy mounds, enclosures, long barrows, tumuli, ridge and furrow, mottes, round barrows, and other tombs.
Hill forts, a type of fort made out of mostly earth and other natural materials including sand, straw, and water, were built as early as the late Stone Age and were built more frequently during the Bronze Age as a means of protection  See also Oppidum.
Henge earthworks are those that consist of a flat area of earth in a circular shape that are encircled by a ditch, or several circular ditches, with a bank on the outside of the ditch built with the earth from inside the ditch. They are believed to have been used as monuments for spiritual
A mound is a substantial manmade pile of earth or rocks that was frequently created to mark burial sites 
Platform mounds are pyramid or rectangular-shaped mounds that are used to hold a building or temple on top.
An effigy mound is a pile of earth, often very large in scale, that is shaped into the image of a person or animal, often for symbolic or spiritual reasons 
An enclosure is a space that is surrounded by an earthwork.
Long barrows are oblong-shaped mounds that are used for burials.
Tumuli are mounds of earth created over a tomb; it has the same meaning as barrow.
A cross dyke or cross-ridge dyke is a bank and ditch, or sometimes a ditch between two banks, that crosses a ridge or spur of high ground. Found in Europe and often belonging to the later Bronze Age or Iron Age. Often marked on Ordnance Survey maps in the UK.
Ridge and furrows are sets of parallel depressions and ridges in the ground formed primarily through historic farming techniques.
Mottes are mound structures made of earth and stone that once held castles. They are an important part of the motte-and-bailey castle, a castle design during early Norman times in which the castle is built on the motte, and surrounded by a ditch and a bailey, which is an enclosure with
a stone wall.
A round barrow is a mound that is in a rounded shape that was used during Neolithic times as a burial mound.
Geoarthworks in North America include mounds built by Native Americans known as the Mound Builders. Ancient people who lived in the American Midwest commonly built effigy mounds, which are mounds shaped like animals (real or imaginary) or people. Possibly the most
famous of these effigy mounds is Serpent Mound. Located in the Ohio, this 411-meterlong earthen work is thought to memorialize alignments of the planets and stars that were of special significance to the Native Americans that constructed it. Cone-shaped or conical mounds are
also numerous, with thousands of them scattered across the American Midwest, some over 80 feet tall. These conical mounds appear to be marking the graves of one person or even dozens of people. An example of a conical mound is the Miamisburg Mound in central Ohio, which
has been estimated to have been built by people of the Adena culture in the time range of 800 B.C. to 100 AD. The American Plains also hold temple mounds, or platform mounds, which are giant pyramid-shaped mounds with flat tops that once held temples made of wood. Examples
of temple mounds include Monks Mound located at the Cahokia site in Collinsville, Illinois, and Mound H at the Crystal River site in Citrus County, Flori Steppe Geoglyphs, discovered in 2007 using Google Earth, are an example of Earthworks in Central Asia.Gravel /ˈɡrævəl/ is
composed of unconsolidated rock fragments that have a general particle size range and include size classes from granule- to boulder-sized fragments. Gravel is categorized by the Udden-Wentworth scale into granular gravel (2 to 4 mm or 0.079 to 0.157 in) and pebble gravel (4 to 64
mm or 0.2 to 2.5 in). One cubic yard of gravel typically weighs about 3000 pounds (or a cubic metre is about 1,800 kilograms).
Gravel is an important commercial product, with a number of applications. Many roadways are surfaced with gravel, especially in rural areas where there iresult of the weathering and erosion of rocks. The action of rivers and waves tends to pile up gravel in large accumulations. This
can sometimes result in gravel becoming compacted and concreted into the sedimentary rock called conglomerate. Where natural gravel deposits are insufficient for human purposes, gravel is often produced by quarrying and crushing hard-wearing rocks, such as sandstone,
limestone, or basalt. Quarries where gravel is extracted are known as gravel pits. Southern England possesses particularly large concentrations of them due to the widespread deposition of gravel in the region during the Ice Ages.s little traffic. Globally, far more roads are surfaced with
gravel than with concrete or tarmac; Russia alone has over 400,000 km (250,000 mi) of gravel roads. Both sand and small gravel are also important for the manufacture of concreteThe word gravel comes from the Breton language. In Breton, "grav" means coast. Adding the "-el"
suffix in Breton denotes the component parts of something larger. Thus "gravel" means the small stones which make up such a beach on the coast. Many dictionaries ignore the Bypes of gravel inclBank gravel: naturally deposited gravel intermixed with sand or clay found in and next to
rivers and streams. Also known as "Bank run" or "River run".
Bench gravel: a bed of gravel located on the side of a valley above the present stream bottom, indicating the former location of the stream bed when it was at a higher level.
Creek rock: this is generally rounded, semi-polished stones, potentially of a wide range of types, that are dredged or scooped from river beds and creek beds. It is also often used as concrete aggregate and less often as a paving surface.
Crushed stone: rock crushed and graded by screens and then mixed to a blend of stones and fines. It is widely used as a surfacing for roads and driveways, sometimes with tar applied over it. Crushed stone may be made from granite, limestone, dolomite, and other rocks. Also known
as "crusher run", DGA (Dense Grade Aggregate) QP (Quarry Process), and shoulder stne gravel: gravel consisting of particles with a diameter of 2 to 4 mag gravel: a surface accumulation of coarse gravel produced by the removal of finer pay gravel: also known as "pay dirt"; a
nickname for gravel with a high concentration of gold and other precious metals. The metals are recovered through gold panninea gravel: gravel that consists of small, rounded stones used in concrete surfaces. Also used for walkways, driveways and as a substrate in home
aquariumedmont gravel: a coarse gravel carried down from high places by mountain streams and deposited on relatively flat grIn geology, rock or stone is a naturally occurring solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids. For example, the common rock granite is a
combination of the quartz, feldspar and biotite minerals. The Earth's outer solid layer, the lithosphere, is made ofeen used by mankind throughout history. From the Stone Age, rocks have been used for tools. The minerals and metals found in rocks have been essential to humaAt a
granular level, rocks are composed of grains of minerals, which, in turn, are homogeneous solids formed from a chemical compound that is arranged in an orderly manner. The aggregate minerals forming the rock are held together by chemical bonds. The types and abundance of
minerals in a rock are determined by the manner in which the rock was formed. Many rocks contain silica (SiO2); a compound of silicon and oxygen that forms 74.3% of the Earth's crust. This material forms crystals with other compounds in the rock. The proportion of silica in rocks
and minerals is a major factor in determining their name and properties.
Rocks are geologically classified according to characteristics such as mineral and chemical composition, permeability, the texture of the constituent particles, and particle size. These physical properties are the end result of the processes that formed the rocks. Over the course of
time, rocks can transform from one type into another, as described by the geological model called the rock cycle. These events produce three general classes of rock: igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
The three classes of rocks are subdivided into many groups. However, there are no hard and fast boundaries between allied rocks. By increase or decrease in the proportions of their constituent minerals they pass by every gradation into one another, the distinctive structures also of
one kind of rock may often be traced gradually merging into those of another. Hence the definitions adopted in establishing rock nomenclature merely correspond to more or less arbitrary selected points in a continuously graduated series.A gravel road is a type of unpaved road
surfaced with gravel that has been brought to the site from a quarry or stream bed. They are common in less-developed nations, and also in the rural areas of developed nations such as Canada and the United States. In New Zealand, and other Commonwealth countries, they may be
known as 'metal roads'. They may be referred to as 'dirt roads' in common speech, but that term is used more for unimproved roads with no surface material added. If well constructed and maintained, a gravel road is an all-weather road.Construction
Compared to sealed roads, which require large machinery to work and pour concrete or to lay and smooth a bitumen-based surface, gravel roads are easy and cheap to build. However, compared to dirt roads, all-weather gravel highways are quite expensive to build, as they require
front loaders, dump trucks, graders and roadrollers to provide a base course of compacted earth or other material, sometimes macadamised, covered with one or more different layers of gravel. Graders are also used to produce a more extreme camber compared to a paved road to
aid drainage, as well as construct drainage ditches and embankments in low-lying areas. Cellular confinement systems can be used to prevent the washboarding effect.
The gravel used consists of varying amount of crushed stone, sand, and fines. Fines are silt or clay particles smaller than .075 millimetres (0.0030 in), which can act as a binder. Crushed stone is used because gravel with fractured faces will stay in place better than rounded river
pebbles. A good gravel for a gravel road will have a higher percentage of fines than gravel used as a subbase for a paved road. This often causes problems if a gravel road is paved without adding sand and gravel sized stone to dilute the percentage of fines.
A gravel road is quite different from a 'gravel drive', popular as private driveways in the United Kingdom. This uses clean gravel consisting of uniform, rounded stones and small pebbles.
Laterite and murram roads
In Africa and parts of Asia, laterite soils are used to build dirt roads. However laterite, called murram in East Africa, varies considerably in the proportion of stones (which are usually very small) to earth and sand. It ranges from a hard gravel to a softer earth embedded with small
stones. Not all laterite and murram roads are therefore strictly gravel roads. Laterite and murram which contains a significant proportion of clay becomes very slippery when wet, and in the rainy season, it may be difficult even for four-wheel drive vehicles to avoid slipping off very
cambered roads into the drainage ditches at the side of the road. As it dries out, such laterite can become very hard, like sun-dried bricks.
Gravel roads require much more frequent maintenance than paved roads, especially after wet periods and when accommodating increased traffic. Wheel motion shoves material to the outside (as well as in-between travelled lanes), leading to rutting, reduced water-runoff, and eventual
road destruction if unchecked. As long as the process is interrupted early enough, simple re-grading is sufficient, with material being pushed back into shape.
Segments of gravel roads on grades also rut easily as a result of flowing water. When grading or building the road, waterbars are used to direct water off the road. As an alternative method, humps can be formed in the gravel along the road to impede water flow, thereby reducing rutting.
Another problem with gravel roads is washboarding — the formation of corrugations across the surface at right angles to the direction of travel. They can become severe enough to cause vibration in vehicles so that bolts loosen or cracks form in components. Grading removes the
corrugations, and reconstruction with careful choice of good quality gravel can help prevent them reforming. Additionally, installing a cellular confinement system will prevent the washboard-like corrugations from occurring.
Gravel roads are often found in cold climates because they are less vulnerable to freeze / thaw damage than asphalt roads. The inferior surface of gravel is not an issue if the road is covered by snow and ice for extended periods.
Although well-constructed and graded gravel roads are suitable for speeds of 100 km/h (60 mph), driving on them requires far more attention to variations of the surface and it is easier to lose control than on a paved road. In addition to potholes, ruts and loose stony or sandy ridges at the
edges or in the middle of the road, problems associated with driving on gravel roads include:
sharper and larger stones cutting and puncturing tires, or being thrown up by the wheels and damaging the underside, especially puncturing the fuel tank of unmodified cars
stones skipping up hitting the car body, lights or windshields when two vehicles pass at high speed
dust thrown up from a passing vehicle reducing visibility
'washboard' corrugations cause loss of control or damage to vehicles due to excessive vibration
skidding on mud after rain
vehicle fishtailing as a result of ruts in the surface of the gravel
In higher rainfall areas, the increased camber required to drain water, and open drainage ditches at the sides of the road, often cause vehicles with a high centre of gravity, such as trucks and off-road vehicles, to overturn if they do not keep close to the crown of the road
Tire wear increases by 40–50% on gravel roads
Excess dust permeates door-opening rubber moulding breaking the seal
Lost binder in the form of road dust, when mixed with rain, will wear away the painted surfaces of vehicles
Many gravel roads are only one lane wide or slightly larger, thus requiring special attention when driving at higher speeds
Forest service road
See also: Fire trail
A branch British Columbia Ministry of Forests forest service road in steep terrain. Photo taken in the Lower Seymour Conservation Reserve near North Vancouver, British Columbia.
A 'Forest Service Road' is a type of rudimentary access road, built by the Forest Service to access remote undeveloped areas. These roads are built mainly for the purposes of the logging industry and forest management workers, although in some cases they are also used for
backcountry recreation access.
Networks of tributary roads branch off from a trunk FSR. Roads are usually named after a regional district, and branches have an alphanumeric designation.
Typically, a high-clearance four-wheel drive vehicle is required to travel effectively on a road, especially where large potholes and/or waterbars are present. Switchbacks are employed to make the road passable through steep terrain.
These roads rapidly fall into disrepair and quickly become impassable. Remnants of old roads can exist for decades. They are eventually erased by washout, erosion, and ecological succession.
Logging railroad converted to logging truck use in northwest Oregon
Gravel Road south of Coober Pedy
Logging roads are constructed to provide access to the forest for logging and other forest management operations. They are commonly narrow, winding, and unpaved, but main haul roads can be widened, straightened or paved if traffic volume warrants it.
The choice of road design standards is a trade off between construction costs and haul costs (which the road is designed to reduce). A road that serves only a few stands will be used by relatively few trucks over its lifetime, so it makes sense to save construction costs with a narrow,
winding, unpaved road that adds to the time (and haul costs) of these few trips. A main haul road serving a large area however will be used by many trucks each day, and each trip will be shorter (saving time and money) if the road is straighter and wider, with a smoother surface.
New drainage systems incorporate geotextile filters that retain and prevent fine grains of soil from passing into and clogging the drain. Geotextiles are synthetic textile fabrics specially manufactured for civil and environmental engineering applications. Geotextiles are designed to retain
fine soil particles while allowing water to pass through. In a typical drainage system they would be laid along a trench which would then be filled with coarse granular material: gravel, sea shells, stone or rock. The geotextile is then folded over the top of the stone and the trench is then
covered by soil. Groundwater seeps through the geotextile and flow within the stone to an outfell. In high groundwater conditions a perforated plastic (PVC or PE) pipe is laid along the base of the drain to increases the volume of water transported in the drain.
Alternatively,the prefabricated plastic drainage system made of HDPE called SmartDitch, often incorporating geotextile, coco fiber or rag filters can be considered. The use of these materials has become increasingly more common due to their ease of use which eliminates the need for
transporting and laying stone drainage aggregate which is invariably more expensive than a synthetic drain and concrete liners.
Over the past 30 years geotextile and PVC filters have become the most commonly used soil filter media. They are cheap to produce and easy to lay, with factory controlled properties that ensure long term filtration performance even in fine silty soil conditions.
Logging trucks are generally given right of way. In areas where this practice is regulated (or is supposed to be) non-highway roads with heavy logging traffic may be "radio-controlled", which is to say a CB radio on board any vehicle on the road is advised for safety reasons.
eattle's Public Utilities created a pilot program called Street Edge Alternatives (SEA Streets) Project. The project focuses on designing a system "to provide drainage that more closely mimics the natural landscape prior to development than traditional piped systems". The streets are
characterized by ditches along the side of the roadway, with plantings designed throughout the area. An emphasis on non curbed sidewalks allows water to flow more freely into the areas of permeable surface on the side of the streets. Because of the plantings the run off water from the
urban area does not all directly go into the ground but can also be absorbed into the surrounding environment. According to the monitoring by Seattle Public Utilities, they report a 99 percent reduction of storm water leaving the drainage project
Drainage has undergone a large-scale environmental review in the recent past in the United Kingdom. Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SuDS) are designed to encourage contractors to install drainage system that more closely mimic the natural flow of water in nature. Since
2010 local and neighbourhood planning in the UK is required by law to factor SuDS into any development projects that they are responsible for. Drainage manufacturers that are showing a commitment to SuDS in pioneering improved environmental drainage options in the United
Kingdom include Alumasc Exterior Building Products, Aco Technologies and Polypipe.
Slot drainage has proved the most breakthrough product of the last twenty years in the as a drainage option. As a channel drainage system it is designed to eliminate the need for further pipework systems to be installed in parallel to the drainage, reducing the environmental impact of
production as well as improving water collection. Both stainless steel and concrete channel slot drainage have become industry standards on construction projects.
- Innovation of century Hydroluis drainage pipe system. its solving all problem of clogging in land fit period and after land period. the system is working by water filtration system working by Archimedes law. drainage pipe and his special cover on the top of drainage pipe giving the
drainage pipe many advantages. Adventage & Characteristics of Hydroluis® Drainage ; First Anti-Plant roots Drainage pipe On the world. (It does not emit moisture from the pipe holes). Anti-bacterial (Iron Oxide was effecting Iron Ochre, Calcium carbonate and sulfate was effecting
bio-film clogging problems on other drain pipe envelope). First drainage pipes saving the underground water in drought seasons. Works only when water table rises above specified levels. Best performance flowing and minimum sediment entrance than all system during land fit period.
Eliminates requirement for annual maintenance or internal cleaning of drainage pipe and guarantees the strength life cycle and operational performance of plastic. Showing longer-term operating performance in all types of soil conditions as compared to competing drainage systems.
Long term operating costs of the drainage pipe proves to be the most cost-effective. After laying the system, disadvantages of growing plant roots are turned in advantages as this system increases water flow in the direction of drainage pipe. Usable in shallow impermeable grounds,and
ropy ground i.e., near the plant roots.
Drainage in the construction industry
Piping being placed for a sink
The civil engineer is responsible for drainage in construction projects. They set out from the plans all the roads, street gutters, drainage, culverts and sewers involved in construction operations. During the construction process he/she will set out all the necessary levels for each of the
previously mentioned factors.
Civil engineers and construction managers work alongside architects and supervisors, planners, quantity surveyors, the general workforce, as well as subcontractors. Typically, most jurisdictions have some body of drainage law to govern to what degree a landowner can alter the
drainage from his parcel.
Drainage options for the construction industry include:
Point drainage, which intercepts water at gullies (points). Gullies connect to drainage pipes beneath the ground surface and deep excavation is required to facilitate this system. Support for deep trenches is required in the shape of planking, strutting or shoring.
Channel drainage, which intercepts water along the entire run of the channel. Channel drainage is typically manufactured from concrete, steel, polymer or composites. The interception rate of channel drainage is greater than point drainage and the excavation required is usually much
The surface opening of channel drainage usually comes in the form of gratings (polymer, plastic, steel or iron) or a single slot (slot drain) that runs along the ground surface (typically manufactured from steel or iron).
Reasons for artificial drainage
An agricultural drainage channel outside Magome, Japan after a heavy rain. Note that protuberances create turbulent water, preventing sediment from settling in the channel.
Wetland soils may need drainage to be used for agriculture. In the northern United States and Europe, glaciation created numerous small lakes which gradually filled with humus to make marshes. Some of these were drained using open ditches and trenches to make mucklands, which
are primarily used for high value crops such as vegetables.
The largest project of this type in the world has been in process for centuries in the Netherlands. The area between Amsterdam, Haarlem and Leiden was, in prehistoric times swampland and small lakes. Turf cutting (Peat mining), subsidence and shoreline erosion gradually caused
the formation of one large lake, the Haarlemmermeer, or lake of Haarlem. The invention of wind-powered pumping engines in the 15th century permitted drainage of some of the marginal land, but the final drainage of the lake had to await the design of large, steam powered pumps and
agreements between regional authorities. The elimination of the lake occurred between 1849 and 1852, creating thousands of km² of new land.
Coastal plains and river deltas may have seasonally or permanently high water tables and must have drainage improvements if they are to be used for agriculture. An example is the flatwoods citrus-growing region of Florida. After periods of high rainfall, drainage pumps are employed
to prevent damage to the citrus groves from overly wet soils. Rice production requires complete control of water, as fields need to be flooded or drained at different stages of the crop cycle. The Netherlands has also led the way in this type of drainage, not only to drain lowland along the
shore, but actually pushing back the sea until the original nation has been greatly enlarged.
In moist climates, soils may be adequate for cropping with the exception that they become waterlogged for brief periods each year, from snow melt or from heavy rains. Soils that are predominantly clay will pass water very slowly downward, meanwhile plant roots suffocate because
the excessive water around the roots eliminates air movement through the soil.
Other soils may have an impervious layer of mineralized soil, called a hardpan or relatively impervious rock layers may underlie shallow soils. Drainage is especially important in tree fruit production. Soils that are otherwise excellent may be waterlogged for a week of the year, which
is sufficient to kill fruit trees and cost the productivity of the land until replacements can be established. In each of these cases appropriate drainage carries off temporary flushes of water to prevent damage to annual or perennial crops.
Drier areas are often farmed by irrigation, and one would not consider drainage necessary. However, irrigation water always contains minerals and salts, which can be concentrated to toxic levels by evapotranspiration. Irrigated land may need periodic flushes with excessive irrigation
water and drainage to control soil salinity.
A typical drain in Bankstown, New South Wales
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