Fill dirt is usually subsoil (soil from beneath the top soil) and underlying soil parent material which has little soil organic matter or biological activity. Fill dirt is
taken from a location where soil is being removed as a part of leveling an area for construction; it may also contain sand, rocks, and stones, as well as earth.
dirt should be as free of organic matter as possible since organic matter will decompose creating pockets of empty space within the fill which could result in
settling. Uneven or excessive settling of the fill can result in damage to any structures built on the fill.common use of fill dirt is in highway maintenance to build
up the shoulders of highways so that the ground on either side of the pavement is at the same level as the pavement itself and that the highway shoulders are
sufficiently wide as to allow vehicles room to pull off of the highway if needed. second common use of fill dirt is to fill in a low-lying construction site to raise the
level of the building foundation in order to reduce the chances of flooding. Several massive uses of fill dirt are with improvements to the Port of Seattle Sea-Tac
Airport, the addition of a new runway to the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport in Atlanta, Georgia, and the Shin Kansai Kuko or New Osaka Airport
off the coast of Japan, a project involving the creation of a new man-made island of some five square kilometers.Fill dirt is most often mined from commercial
sand and gravel mines then imported to the project site, and must meet specifications for gradation outlined by the Project's Geotechnical Engineer. The logistics
and availability of fill dirt material has become a growing concern for the commercial sand and gravel industry in recent years as the need for fill material has
surged and the available resources in mines are depleted. This directly impacts the public and end-user as the cost of construction increases due to the logistical
challenges of importing material from greater distances as materials grow more scarce.In civil engineering, a cut or cutting is where soil or rock material from a
hill or mountain is cut out to make way for canal, road or railway linerddig cutting through the Cambrian Mountains, Wales in 2001. Created as part of the
Newtown and Machynlleth Railway, with a depth of 120 feet (37 m), it was the deepest cutting in the world at the time of its opening in the early 1860s. The
original near-vertical sides have since been trimmed backcut and fill construction it keeps the route straight and/or flat, where the comparative cost or practicality
of alternate solutions (such as diversion) is prohibitive. Contrary to the general meaning of cutting, a cutting in construction is mechanically excavated or blasted
out with carefully placed explosives. The cut may only be on one side of a slope, or directly through the middle or top of a hill. Generally, a cut is open at the
top (otherwise it is a tunnel). A cut is (in a sense) the opposite of an embankmeen-cut station of the New York City Sen used in reference to transportation
routes, it reduces the grade of the ro can be created by multiple passes of a shovel, grader, scraper or excavator, or by blasting. One unusual means of
creating a cut is to remove the roof of a tunnel through daylighting. Material removed from cuts is ideally balanced by material needed for fills along the same
route, but this is not always the case when cut material is unsuitable for use a word is also used in the same sense in mining, as in an open cut mine.Topsoil is
the upper, outermost layer of soil, usually the top 2 inches (5.1 cm) to 8 inches (20 cm). It has the highest concentration of organic matter and microorganisms
and is where most of the Earth's biological soil activity occurs. It also houses many organismsA variety of soil mixtures are sold commercially as topsoil, usually
for use in improving gardens and lawns, e.g. container gardens, potting soil and peat. Another important yet not commonly known use for topsoil is for proper
surface grading near residential buildings such as homes. "The ground around the home should slope down six inches for the first ten feet away from the home.
This can often be done by adding topsoil (not sand or gravel)."[A major environmental concern known as topsoil erosion occurs when the topsoil layer is blown
or washed away. Without topsoil, little plant life is possible. The estimated annual costs of public and environmental health losses related to soil erosion exceed
$45 billion. Conventional agriculture encourages the depletion of topsoil because the soil must be plowed and replanted each year. Sustainable techniques
attempt to slow erosion through the use of cover crops in order to build organic matter in the soil. The United States alone loses almost 3 tons of topsoil per acre
per year. This is of great ecological concern as one inch of topsoil can take between 500 and 1,000 years to form naturally. On current trends, the
world has about 60 years of topsoil left.[.Subsoil is the layer of soil under the topsoil on the surface of the ground. Like topsoil it is composed of a variable
mixture of small particles such as sand, silt and/or clay, but it lacks the organic matter and humus content of topsoil. Below the subsoil is the substratum, which
can be residual bedrock, sediments, or aeolian deposits. As it is lacking in dark humus, subsoil is usually paler in colour than the overlying topsoil. It may contain
the deeper roots of some plants, such as trees, but a majority of plant roots lie within the surface topsoil.Soil is the mixture of minerals, organic matter, gases,
liquids, and the countless organisms that together support life on Earth. Soil is a natural body known as the pedosphere and which performs four important
functions: it is a medium for plant growth; it is a means of water storage, supply and purification; it is a modifier of Earth's atmosphere; it is a habitat for
organisms; all of which, in turn, modify the soil.Soil is considered to be the "skin of the Earth" and interfaces with its lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and
biosphere. Soil consists of a solid phase (minerals and organic matter) as well as a porous phase that holds gases and water. Accordingly, soils are
often treated as a three-state system of solids, liquids, and gases.oil is the end product of the influence of the climate, relief (elevation, orientation, and slope
of terrain), organisms, and its parent materials (original minerals) interacting over time. Soil continually undergoes development by way of numerous
physical, chemical and biological processes, which include weathering with associated erosion.ost soils have a density between 1 and 2 g/cm3. Little of the
soil of planet Earth is older than the Pleistocene and none is older than the Cenozoic, although fossilized 0 Soil Gover
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