preparation, driveways, roads or earth moving, this is the place to call.<meta description" content="We have excavators and other vehicles available
to dig lakes and ponds. Call for more information" />"dig lakes,dig lakes and ponds,dig ponds,exavator,lakes and ponds," State transportation departments further refine aggregate material specifications in order to tailor aggregate use to the needs and available supply in their
particular locations.Sources for these basic materials can be grouped into three main areas: Mining of mineral aggregate deposits, including sand, gravel, and stone; use of waste slag from the manufacture of iron and steel; and recycling of concrete, which is itself chiefly manufactured from mineral
aggregates. In addition, there are some (minor) materials that are used as specialty lightweight aggregates: clay, pumice, perlite, and vermiculite.Contents    1 History    2 Modern production    3 Recycled materials for aggregates      &
nbsp; 3.1 Recycled aggregate production in the UK    4 See also    5 References        5.1 Footnotes        5.2 General referenceHistoryPeople have used sand and stone for foundations for thousands of years. Significant refinement of the production and use of aggregate occurred during the Roman
Empire, which used aggregate to build its vast network of roads and aqueducts. The invention of concrete, which was essential to architecture utilizing arches, created an immediate, permanent demand for construction aggregates.Vitruvius writes in De architectura:    Economy denotes the proper
management of materials and of site, as well as a thrifty balancing of cost and common sense in the construction of works. This will be observed if, in the first place, the architect does not demand things which cannot be found or made ready without great expense. For example: it is not everywhere that
there is plenty of pit-sand, rubble, fir, clear fir, and marble... Where there is no pit sand, we must use the kinds washed up by rivers or by the sea... and other problems we must solve in similar ways.Modern productionThe advent of modern blasting methods enabled the development of quarries, which
are now used throughout the world, wherever competent bedrock deposits of aggregate quality exist. In many places, good limestone, granite, marble or other quality stone bedrock deposits do not exist. In these areas, natural sand and gravel are mined for use as aggregate. Where neither stone, nor
sand and gravel, are available, construction demand is usually satisfied by shipping in aggregate by rail, barge or truck. Additionally, demand for aggregates can be partially satisfied through the use of slag and recycled concrete. However, the available tonnages and lesser quality of these materials
prevent them from being a viable replacement for mined aggregates on a large scale.Over 1 million tons annually are mined from this quarry near San Francisco.[1]Large stone quarry and sand and gravel operations exist near virtually all population centers. These are capital-intensive operations,
utilizing large earth-moving equipment, belt conveyors, and machines specifically designed for crushing and separating various sizes of aggregate, to create distinct product stockpiles.According to the USGS, 2006 U.S. crushed stone production was 1.72 billion tonnes valued at $13.8 billion (compared
to 1.69 billion tonnes valued at $12.1 billion in 2005), of which limestone was 1,080 million tonnes valued at $8.19 billion from 1,896 quarries, granite was 268 million tonnes valued at $2.59 billion from 378 quarries, traprock was 148 million tonnes valued at $1.04 billion from 355 quarries, and the
balance other kinds of stone from 729 quarries. Limestone and granite are also produced in large amounts as dimension stone. The great majority of crushed stone moved by heavy truck from the quarry/plant to the first point of sale or use. According to the USGS, 2006 U.S. sand and gravel production
was 1.32 billion tonnes valued at $8.54 billion (compared to 1.27 billion tonnes valued at $7.46 billion in 2005), of which 264 million tonnes valued at $1.92 billion was used as concrete aggregates. The great majority of this was again moved by truck, instead of by electric train.Currently, total U.S.
aggregate demand by final market sector was 30%–35% for non-residential building (offices, hotels, stores, manufacturing plants, government and institutional buildings, and others), 25% for highways, and 25% for housing.[2]Recycled materials for aggregatesThe largest-volume of recycled
material used as construction aggregate is blast furnace and steel furnace slag. Blast furnace slag is either air-cooled (slow cooling in the open) or granulated (formed by quenching molten slag in water to form sand-sized glass-like particles). If the granulated blast furnace slag accesses free lime
during hydration, it develops strong hydraulic cementitious properties and can partly substitute for portland cement in concrete. Steel furnace slag is also air-cooled. In 2006, according to the USGS, air-cooled blast furnace slag sold or used in the U.S. was 7.3 million tonnes valued at $49 million,
granulated blast furnace slag sold or used in the U.S. was 4.2 million tonnes valued at $318 million, and steel furnace slag sold or used in the U.S. was 8.7 million tonnes valued at $40 million. Air-cooled blast furnace slag sales in 2006 were for use in road bases and surfaces (41%), asphaltic concrete
(13%), ready-mixed concrete (16%), and the balance for other uses. Granulated blast furnace slag sales in 2006 were for use in cementitious materials (94%), and the balance for other uses. Steel furnace slag sales in 2006 were for use in road bases and surfaces (51%), asphaltic concrete (12%), for
fill (18%), and the balance for other uses.Glass aggregate, a mix of colors crushed to a small size, is substituted for many construction and utility projects in place of pea gravel or crushed rock, often saving municipalities like the City of Tumwater, Washington Public Works, thousands of dollars
(depending on the size of the project). Glass aggregate is not sharp to handle. In many cases, the state Department of Transportation has specifications for use, size and percentage of quantity for use. Common applications are as pipe bedding—placed around sewer, storm water or drinking
water pipes to transfer weight from the surface and protect the pipe. Another common use would be as fill to bring the level of a concrete floor even with a foundation. Use of glass aggregate helps close the loop in glass recycling in many places where glass cannot be smelted into new
glass.[3]Aggregates themselves can be recycled as aggregates. Unlike deposits of sand and gravel or stone suitable for crushing into aggregate, which can be anywhere and may require overburden removal and/or blasting, "deposits" of recyclable aggregate tend to be concentrated near
urban areas, and production from them cannot be raised or lowered to meet demand for aggregates. Supply of recycled aggregate depends on physical decay of structures and their demolition. The recycling plant can be fixed or mobile; the smaller capacity mobile plant works best for
asphalt-aggregate recycling. The material being recycled is usually highly variable in quality and properties.Many aggregate products of various types are often recycled for other industrial purposes. In Bay City, Michigan, for example, a recycle program exists for contractors and their own unused
products. These piles are composed of unused mixed concrete, block, brick, gravel, pea stone, and other used materials. Composed of several alternating piles that grow to hundreds of feet in height and diameter. These piles are then crushed to provide subbase for roads and driveways, among other
purposes. This program has huge economic and environmental benefits to the local and surrounding area. Contractors save on disposal costs and less aggregate is buried or piled and abandoned.According to the USGS in 2006, 2.9 million tonnes of Portland cement concrete (including aggregate)
worth $21.9 million was recycled, and 1.6 million tonnes of asphalt concrete (including aggregate) worth $11.8 million was recycled, both by crushed stone operations. Much more of both materials are recycled by construction and demolition firms not in the USGS survey. For sand and gravel, the
USGS survey for 2006 showed that 4.7 million tonnes of cement concrete valued at $32.0 million was recycled, and 6.17 million tonnes of asphalt concrete valued at $45.1 million was recycled. Again, more of both materials are recycled by construction and demolition firms not in this USGS survey.
The Construction Materials Recycling Association indicates that there are 325 million tonnes of recoverable construction and demolition materials produced annually.Many geosynthetic aggregates are also made from recycled materials. Being polymer based, recyclable plastics can be reused in the
production of these new age of aggregates. For example, Ring Industrial Group's EZflow[4] product lines are produced with geosynthetic aggregate pieces that are more than 99.9% recycled polystyrene. This polystyrene, that would have otherwise been destined for a landfill, is instead gathered,
melted, mixed, reformulated and expanded to create low density aggregates that maintain high strength properties while under compressive loads. Such geosynthetic aggregates replace conventional gravel while simultaneously increasing porosity, increasing hydraulic conductivity and eliminating the
fine dust "fines" inherent to gravel aggregates which otherwise serve to clog and disrupt the operation of many drainage applications.Recycled aggregate production in the UKRecycled aggregate in the UK is defined as aggregate resulting from the processing of inorganic material previously
used in construction. To ensure the aggregate is inert, it is manufactured from material tested and characterised under European Waste Codes.[5]In 2008, 210 million tonnes of aggregate were produced in the UK of which 67 million tonnes was recycled product, according to the Quarry Products
Association (QPA).[6] The Waste and Resource Action Programme (WRAP)[7] has produced a Quality Protocol for the regulated production of recycled aggregates.[8] The recycled aggregate is delivered with documentation that states it has been produced using a quality assured system for the
manufacturing process to ensure an aggregate that conforms to the relevant European standards.[9]Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles. It is defined by size, being finer than gravel and coarser than silt. Sand can also refer to a textural
class of soil or soil type; i.e. a soil containing more than 85% sand-sized particles (by mass).[1]The composition of sand varies, depending on the local rock sources and conditions, but the most common constituent of sand in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings is silica (silicon
dioxide, or SiO2), usually in the form of quartz. The second most common type of sand is calcium carbonate, for example aragonite, which has mostly been created, over the past half billion years, by various forms of life, like coral and shellfish. It is, for example, the primary form of sand apparent in
areas where reefs have dominated the ecosystem for millions of years like the Caribbean.Contents    1 Composition    2 Study    3 Uses    4 Resources and environmental concerns    5 Hazards    6 See also    7 References    8 External linksCompositionHeavy minerals (dark) in a quartz beach sand
(Chennai, India).Sand from Coral Pink Sand Dunes State Park, Utah. These are grains of quartz with a hematite coating providing the orange color.Sand from Pismo Beach, California. Components are primarily quartz, chert, igneous rock and shell fragments.In terms of particle size as used by
geologists, sand particles range in diameter from 0.0625 mm (or 1⁄16 mm) to 2 mm. An individual particle in this range size is termed a sand grain. Sand grains are between gravel (with particles ranging from 2 mm up to 64 mm) and silt (particles smaller than 0.0625 mm down to 0.004 mm).
The size specification between sand and gravel has remained constant for more than a century, but particle diameters as small as 0.02 mm were considered sand under the Albert Atterberg standard in use during the early 20th century. A 1953 engineering standard published by the American
Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials set the minimum sand size at 0.074 mm. A 1938 specification of the United States Department of Agriculture was 0.05 mm.[2] Sand feels gritty when rubbed between the fingers (silt, by comparison, feels like flour).ISO 14688 grades sands as
fine, medium and coarse with ranges 0.063 mm to 0.2 mm to 0.63 mm to 2.0 mm. In the United States, sand is commonly divided into five sub-categories based on size: very fine sand (1⁄16 – 1⁄8 mm diameter), fine sand (1⁄8 mm – 1⁄4 mm), medium sand
(1⁄4 mm – 1⁄2 mm), coarse sand (1⁄2 mm – 1 mm), and very coarse sand (1 mm – 2 mm). These sizes are based on the Krumbein phi scale, where size in Φ = -log2D; D being the particle size in mm. On this scale, for sand the value of Φ varies
from −1 to +4, with the divisions between sub-categories at whole numbers.Close up of black volcanic sand from Perissa, in Santorini, GreeceThe most common constituent of sand, in inland continental settings and non-tropical coastal settings, is silica (silicon dioxide, or SiO2), usually in the
form of quartz, which, because of its chemical inertness and considerable hardness, is the most common mineral resistant to weathering.The composition of mineral sand is highly variable, depending on the local rock sources and conditions. The bright white sands found in tropical and subtropical
coastal settings are eroded limestone and may contain coral and shell fragments in addition to other organic or organically derived fragmental material, suggesting sand formation depends on living organisms, too.[3] The gypsum sand dunes of the White Sands National Monument in New Mexico are
famous for their bright, white color. Arkose is a sand or sandstone with considerable feldspar content, derived from weathering and erosion of a (usually nearby) granitic rock outcrop. Some sands contain magnetite, chlorite, glauconite or gypsum. Sands rich in magnetite are dark to black in color, as
are sands derived from volcanic basalts and obsidian. Chlorite-glauconite bearing sands are typically green in color, as are sands derived from basaltic (lava) with a high olivine content. Many sands, especially those found extensively in Southern Europe, have iron impurities within the quartz crystals
of the sand, giving a deep yellow color. Sand deposits in some areas contain garnets and other resistant minerals, including some small gemstones.StudyAn electron micrograph showing grains of sandPitted sand grains from the Western Desert, Egypt. Pitting is a consequence of wind
transportation.The study of individual grains can reveal much historical information as to the origin and kind of transport of the grain. Quartz sand that is recently weathered from granite or gneiss quartz crystals will be angular. It is called grus in geology or sharp sand in the building trade where it is
preferred for concrete, and in gardening where it is used as a soil amendment to loosen clay soils. Sand that is transported long distances by water or wind will be rounded, with characteristic abrasion patterns on the grain surface. Desert sand is typically rounded.People who collect sand as a hobby
are known as arenophiles. Organisms that thrive in sandy environments are psammophiles.[4]UsesSand sorting tower at a gravel pit.    Agriculture: Sandy soils are ideal for crops such as watermelons, peaches and peanuts, and their excellent drainage characteristics make them suitable for intensive
dairy farming.    Aquaria: Sand makes a low cost aquarium base material which some believe is better than gravel for home use. It is also a necessity for saltwater reef tanks, which emulate environments composed largely of aragonite sand br pavements such as Nicolson pavement, were once
common in urban areas throughout the world, but fell out of fashion in most countries, due to the high cost of labor required to lay and maintain them, and are typically only kept for historical or aesthetic reasons.[citation needed] In some countries, however, they are still common in local streets. In the
Netherlands, brick paving has made somewhat of a comeback since the adoption of a major nationwide traffic safety program in 1997. From 1998 through 2007, more than 41,000 km of city streets were converted to local access roads with a speed limit of 30 km/h, for the purpose of traffic calming.[27]
One popular measure is to use brick paving - the noise and vibration slows motorists down. At the same time, it is not uncommon for cycle paths alongside a road to have a smoother surface than the road itself.[28][29]Likewise, macadam and tarmac pavements can still sometimes be found buried
underneath asphalt concrete or Portland cement concrete pavements, but are rarely constructed today.There are also other methods and materials to create pavements that have appearance of brick pavements. The first method to create brick texture is to heat an asphalt pavement and use metal wires
to imprint a brick pattern using a compactor to create stamped asphalt. A similar method is to use rubber imprinting tools to press over a thin layer of cement to create decorative concrete. Another method is to use a brick pattern stencil and apply a surfacing material over the stencil. Materials that can
be applied to give the color of the brick and skid resistance can be in many forms. An example is to use colored polymer-modified concrete slurry which can be applied by screeding or spraying.[30] Another material is aggregate-reinforced thermoplastic which can be heat applied to the top layer of the
brick-pattern surface.[31] Other coating materials over stamped asphalt are paints and two-part epoxy coating.[32]As pavement systems primarily fail due to fatigue (in a manner similar to metals), the damage done to pavement increases with the fourth power of the axle load of the vehicles traveling
on it. According to the AASHO Road Test, heavily loaded trucks can do more than 10,000 times the damage done by a normal passenger car. Tax rates for trucks are higher than those for cars in most countries for this reason, though they are not levied in proportion to the damage done.[36] Passenger
cars are considered to have no practical effect on a pavement's service life, from a fatigue perspective.Other failure modes include aging and surface abrasion. As years go by, the binder in a bituminous wearing course gets stiffer and less flexible. When it gets "old" enough, the surface will
start losing aggregates, and macrotexture depth increases dramatically. If no maintenance action is done quickly on the wearing course, potholes will form. If the road is still structurally sound, a bituminous surface treatment, such as a chipseal or surface dressing can prolong the life of the road at low
cost. In areas with cold climate, studded tires may be allowed on passenger cars. In Sweden and Finland, studded passenger car tires account for a very large share of pavement rutting.Several design methods have been developed to determine the thickness and composition of road surfaces required
to carry predicted traffic loads for a given period of time. Pavement design methods are continuously evolving. Among these are the Shell Pavement design method, and the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) 1993 "Guide for Design of Pavement
Structures". A new mechanistic-empirical design guide has been under development by NCHRP (Called Superpave Technology) since 1998. A new design guide called Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG) was developed and is about to be adopted by AASHTO.The
physical properties of a stretch of pavement can be tested using a falling weight deflectometer.Further research by University College London into pavements has led to the development of an indoor, 80-sq-metre artificial pavement at a research centre called Pedestrian Accessibility and Movement
Environment Laboratory (PAMELA). It is used to simulate everyday scenarios, from different pavement users to varying pavement conditions.[37] There also exists a research facility near Auburn University, the NCAT Pavement Test Track, that is used to test experimental asphalt pavements for
durability.In addition to repair costs, the condition of a road surface has economic effects for road users. Rolling resistance increases on rough pavement, as does wear and tear of vehicle components. It has been estimated that poor road surfaces cost the average US driver $324 per year in vehicle
repairs, or a total of $67 billion. Also, it has been estimated that small improvements in road surface conditions can decrease fuel consumption between 1.8 and 4.7%.[38]MarkingsMain article: Road surface markingRoad surface markings are used on paved roadways to provide guidance and
information to drivers and pedestrians. It can be in the form of mechanical markers such as cat's eyes, botts' dots and rumble strips, or non-mechanical markers such as paints, thermoplastic, plastic and epoxy.See also    Bleeding (roads)    Diamond grinding of pavement    Good Roads Movement    
List of road types by features    Pavement management    Road construction    Road slipperinessWhen you want to use your soil to grow grass or plants, you need to be working with topsoil.  Think of topsoil as a thin living skin that covers the land.  This is the layer thatshould beloose enough to allow
oxygen and moisture to reach plants’ roots and should contain organic matter to feedyour plants.Many of the homes in this area, especially new construction homes, have little or no topsoil left on their yards. Even if there is sometopsoil, it is most likelyheavily clay-based, so you’ll still
want to amend it to give your plants’ roots an easy place to stretch out and growWhen you want to use your soil to grow grass or plants, you need to be working with topsoil.  Think of topsoil as a thin living skin that covers the land.  This is the layer thatshould beloose enough to allow oxygen and
moisture to reach plants’ roots and should contain organic matter to feedyour plants.Many of the homes in this area, especially new construction homes, have little or no topsoil left on their yards. Even if there is sometopsoil, it is most likelyheavily clay-based, so you’ll still want to
amend it to give your plants’ roots an easy place to stretch out and grow.Forgrowing grassin the Charlotte area, mixing coarse sand with our clay topsoil is a great solution.  Youcan roto-till sand into your existing topsoil (if you actually have any topsoil) or you can allow Blue Max Materials do
the hard work for you –we start with a true topsoil, run it through our screening machine to remove debris and loosen it up, and then blend in the correct proportion of sand.  This blend results in our Lawn Max, a proven winner for growing grass and for use under sod.Blue Max Materials mixes
its own soil blends to meet the planting needs of the Charlotte area.When you’re working on a garden bed, you’ll needto amend yourtopsoil.  The do-it-yourselfer can get out his roto-tiller and tillinsomecoarse sand tohelp loosen up the clay and allow for better drainage, and thenmix in
organic material, such as compost, toprovide plantswith the nutrients they need for healthy growth.  Finding the right combinationof these components is important and varies based on the compositionof the topsoil in your yard.  Simple soil teststhat can be purchased at garden supply stores or obtained
from the Mecklenburg County Extension Agency will tell you what you need to do to amend your specific soil.  For those who prefer to take the guesswork out of soil amendmentThe Dirt on Soil!Soil is comprised of thesebasic ingredients:  clay, sand,siltand organic matter.  In the Charlotte area, we can
all attest to the fact that clay is the predominant ingredient and while many of us bemoan our clay soil, clay in and of itself is not a bad thing.  Lots of clay makes for aheavy and densesoilwhere the spaces between soil particles are very tiny.As many of you know, when clay soil is dry, it's almost as hard
as concrete!  Plant roots can't push through it.No air can get in from the surface.Most bacteria and other soil organisms that need oxygen can't breathe.This does not provide an environment conducive to growing much of anything, so we need to examine how to make our soil work for us.The correct
soil composition varies depending on your usage; for example, filling a deep hole in your backyard takes an entirely different type of soil than building a raised garden bed!  “Fill dirt” is appropriate when you needsoil to be compacted down to fill a deep hole.  Filldirt is theground below the
top layer of soil (called topsoil!); around here, it is pretty much straight clay andis going to be your least expensive dirt.  It works very well in certain situations, but its use is limited.  Because it comes straight fromthe ground, it’s going to have debris like roots and rocks in it; when you try to
spread this dirt out in a relatively thin layer, it’s very difficult to workwith–o your yard, you want to make sure you’re doing the proper preparation work first.  Loosen the existing soil with a spade or roto-tiller and then mix in the new blended soil at least a few inches down.  If you
skip this step, you will be creating a bowl effect –your plants’ roots will love the new soil and will follow the path of least resistance by staying in the new soil instead of going deeper.  Water will also stay in that top layer because the ground below it will still be too hard to absorb anything.  
This may not sound like a bad thing, but your plants won’t develop the healthy root systemsthey need to survive varying weather conditions.  A few minutes of prep work can save a world of time, headaches and money in the long run!offers a diverse selection of building products and
construction materials including concrete pavers, blocks, brick, natural stone and retaining walls."><meta name="keywords" content="Pavers, Retaining Walls, Concrete Pavers, Interlocking Pavers, Building Products, Landscape Materials, Construction Materials,
Hardscape Materials, Concrete Blocks, Natural Stone, Travertine, Limestone, Marble, Mulch, Decorative Gravel, Gravel Soil, Topsoil, Aggregates, Brick Pavers, Clay Products, Masonry Veneer, Thin Veneer, Manufactured Stone, River Rock, Belgard Pavers, Keystone Retaining Walls, Steel
Landscape Edging, Patio Pavers, Face Brick."allows oxygen to penetrate the soil, again because of all the tiny spaces between the particles, which promotes deeper root growths a quality soil blend that consists of screened topsoil mixed with creek sand to encourage drainage.  visualize trying to
wheelbarrow and spread chunks of clay containing large debris and you’ll understand!  Since fill dirt comes from farther down in the ground, it is not suited for growing plants either.When you need to fill in smaller holes or slightly build up your yard, a product called “screened fill
dirt” is a good choice.  At  we take the clay fill dirtdiscussed above and run it through a screening machine that breaks up the dirt and removes all of the debris larger than ½” or so.  This makes the dirt much easier to work with and spread!    Grass will grow in screened fill dirt, but
since it Road construction requires the creation of a continuous right-of-way, overcoming geographic obstacles and having grades low enough to permit vehicle or foot travel.[28] (pg15) and may be required to meet standards set by law[29] or official guidelines.[30] The process is often begun with the
removal of earth and rock by digging or blasting, construction of embankments, bridges and tunnels, and removal of vegetation (this may involve deforestation) and followed by the laying of pavement material. A variety of road building equipment is employed in road building.[31][32]

After design, approval, planning, legal and environmental considerations have been addressed alignment of the road is set out by a surveyor.[24] The radii and gradient are designed and staked out to best suit the natural ground levels and minimize the amount of cut and fill.[30] (page34) Great care is
taken to preserve reference Benchmarks [30] (page59)

Roads are designed and built for primary use by vehicular and pedestrian traffic. Storm drainage and environmental considerations are a major concern. Erosion and sediment controls are constructed to prevent detrimental effects. Drainage lines are laid with sealed joints in the road easement with
runoff coefficients and characteristics adequate for the land zoning and storm water system. Drainage systems must be capable of carrying the ultimate design flow from the upstream catchment with approval for the outfall from the appropriate authority to a watercourse, creek, river or the sea for
drainage discharge.[30] (page38 to 40)

A borrow pit (source for obtaining fill, gravel, and rock) and a water source should be located near or in reasonable distance to the road construction site. Approval from local authorities may be required to draw water or for working (crushing and screening) of materials for construction needs. The top
soil and vegetation is removed from the borrow pit and stockpiled for subsequent rehabilitation of the extraction area. Side slopes in the excavation area not steeper than one vertical to two horizontal for safety reasons.[30] (page 53 to 56 )

Old road surfaces, fences, and buildings may need to be removed before construction can begin. Trees in the road construction area may be marked for retention. These protected trees should not have the topsoil within the area of the tree's drip line removed and the area should be kept clear of
construction material and equipment. Compensation or replacement may be required if a protected tree is damaged. Much of the vegetation may be mulched and put aside for use during reinstatement. The topsoil is usually stripped and stockpiled nearby for rehabilitation of newly constructed
embankments along the road. Stumps and roots are removed and holes filled as required before the earthwork begins. Final rehabilitation after road construction is completed will include seeding, planting, watering and other activities to reinstate the area to be consistent with the untouched surrounding
areas.[30] (page 66 to 67 )

Processes during earthwork include excavation, removal of material to spoil, filling, compacting, construction and trimming. If rock or other unsuitable material is discovered it is removed, moisture content is managed and replaced with standard fill compacted to meet the design requirements
(generally 90-95% relative compaction). Blasting is not frequently used to excavate the road bed as the intact rock structure forms an ideal road base. When a depression must be filled to come up to the road grade the native bed is compacted after the topsoil has been removed. The fill is made by the
"compacted layer method" where a layer of fill is spread then compacted to specifications, under saturated conditions. The process is repeated until the desired grade is reached.[30] (page 68 to 69 ).Construction aggregate, or simply "aggregate", is a broad category of coarse particulate material used
in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, slag, recycled concrete and geosynthetic aggregates. Aggregates are the most mined materials in the world. Aggregates are a component of composite materials such as concrete and asphalt concrete; the aggregate serves as reinforcement to add
strength to the overall composite material. Due to the relatively high hydraulic conductivity value as compared to most soils, aggregates are widely used in drainage applications such as foundation and French drains, septic drain fields, retaining wall drains, and road side edge drains. Aggregates are
also used as base material under foundations, roads, and railroads. In other words, aggregates are used as a stable foundation or road/rail base with predictable, uniform properties (e.g. to help prevent differential settling under the road or building), or as a low-cost extender that binds with more
expensive cement or asphalt to form concrete.

Preferred bitumenous aggregate sizes for road construction are given in EN 13043 as d/D (where the range shows the smallest and largest square mesh grating that the particles can pass). The same classification sizing is used for larger armour stone sizes in EN 13383, EN 12620 for concrete
aggregate, EN 13242 for base layers of road construction and EN 13450 for railway ballast.

The American Society for Testing and Materials publishes an exhaustive listing of specifications including ASTM D 692 and ASTM D 1073 for various construction aggregate products, which, by their individual design, are suitable for specific construction purposes. These products include specific
types of coarse and fine aggregate designed for such uses as additives to asphalt and concrete mixes, as well as other construction uses. State transportation departments further refine aggregate material specifications in order to tailor aggregate use to the needs and available supply in their particular
locations.

Sources for these basic materials can be grouped into three main areas: Mining of mineral aggregate deposits, including sand, gravel, and stone; use of waste slag from the manufacture of iron and steel; and recycling of concrete, which is itself chiefly manufactured from mineral aggregates. In
addition, there are some (minor) materials that are used as specialty lightweight aggregates: clay, pumice, perlite, and vermiculite.People have used sand and stone for foundations for thousands of years. Significant refinement of the production and use of aggregate occurred during the Roman Empire,
which used aggregate to build its vast network of roads and aqueducts. The invention of concrete, which was essential to architecture utilizing arches, created an immediate, permanent demand for construction aggregates.

Vitruvius writes in De architectura:

Economy denotes the proper management of materials and of site, as well as a thrifty balancing of cost and common sense in the construction of works. This will be observed if, in the first place, the architect does not demand things which cannot be found or made ready without great expense. For
example: it is not everywhere that there is plenty of pit-sand, rubble, fir, clear fir, and marble... Where there is no pit sand, we must use the kinds washed up by rivers or by the sea... and other problems we must solve in similar ways.

Modern production

The advent of modern blasting methods enabled the development of quarries, which are now used throughout the world, wherever competent bedrock deposits of aggregate quality exist. In many places, good limestone, granite, marble or other quality stone bedrock deposits do not exist. In these areas,
natural sand and gravel are mined for use as aggregate. Where neither stone, nor sand and gravel, are available, construction demand is usually satisfied by shipping in aggregate by rail, barge or truck. Additionally, demand for aggregates can be partially satisfied through the use of slag and recycled
concrete. However, the available tonnages and lesser quality of these materials prevent them from being a viable replacement for mined aggregates on a large scale.
Over 1 million tons annually are mined from this quarry near San Francisco.[1]
e done by adding topsoil (not sand or gravel)."[citation needed]
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Contractors With Quality Fill Dirt, Sand and Gravel
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Sand For Sale
Sand, Gravel & Rock for
Residential or
Commercial Projects.
WEATHER FORECAST
Click For 7 Day
Check Weather and Radar For The Next
Week To Help Schedule Your Site-Work.
 
BEFORE YOU DIG
Call 811 at least a few days before you
start any digging project.  Whether
you are planning to do it yourself or
hire a professional, smart digging
means calling 811 before each job.
MATERIAL CALCULATOR
If you want to calculate how much
material you need for a given job then
all you need to know is the width of the
area, length of the area, and the depth
of the area
CLICK HERE IF YOU NEED  
PRECISION CALCULATIONS
call before you dig
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Cheap Dirt
Services  We Provide:  
  • House Pads
  •  Material Hauling
  •  Tractor Service
  •  Drainage and Culverts.
  •  Ponds
  •  Debris Removal
Materials Available:
  • Fill Dirt $8.00 yd Delivered
  • Topsoil $14.00 yd Delivered
  • Fill Sand $12.00 yd Delivered
  • Washed Sand: $14.00 yd Delivered
  • Mason Sand: $38.00 yd Delivered
  • Limestone: $42.00 ton Delivered
  • Crushed Rock: $35.00 ton
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