In the above table, phosphorus and potassium nutrients move more by diffusion than they do by mass flow in the soil water solution, as they are rapidly taken up by the roots creating a concentration of almost zero near the roots (the plants cannot transpire enough water to draw more of
those nutrients near the roots). The very steep concentration gradient is of greater influence in the movement of those ions than is the movement of those by mass flow.[151] The movement by mass flow requires the transpiration of water from the plant causing water and solution ions
to also move toward the roots. Movement by root interception is slowest as the plants must extend their roots. Plants move ions out of their roots in an effort to move nutrients in from the soil. Hydrogen H+ is exchanged for other cations, and carbonate (HCO3−) and hydroxide (OH−)
anions are exchanged for nutrient anions. Plants derive most of their anion nutrients from decomposing organic matter, which holds 95 percent of the nitrogen, 5 to 60 percent of the phosphorus and 80 percent of the sulfur. As plant roots remove nutrients from the soil water solution,
nutrients are added to the soil water as other ions move off of clay and humus, are added from the decomposition of soil minerals, and are released by the decomposition of organic matter. Where crops are produced, the replenishment of nutrients in the soil must be augmented by the
addition of fertilizer or organic matter.[150]
Carbon
Measuring soil respiration in the field using an SRS2000 system.

Plants obtain their carbon from atmospheric carbon dioxide. A plant's weight is forty-five percent carbon. Elementally, carbon is 50% of plant material. Plant residues typically have a carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N) of 50:1. As the soil organic material is digested by arthropods and
micro-organisms, the C/N decreases as the carbonaceous material is metabolised and carbon dioxide (CO2) is released as a byproduct which then finds its way out of the soil and into the atmosphere. The nitrogen, and other nutrients however, is sequestered in the bodies of the living
matter of those decomposing organisms and so it builds up in the soil. Normal CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is 0.03%, which is probably the factor limiting plant growth. In a field of maize on a still day during high light conditions in the growing season, the CO2 concentration
drops very low, but under such conditions the crop could use up to 20 times the normal concentration. The respiration of CO2 by soil micro-organisms decomposing soil organic matter contributes an important amount of CO2 to the photosynthesising plants. Within the soil, CO2
concentration is 10 to 100 times that of atmospheric levels but may rise to toxic levels if the soil porosity is low or if diffusion is impeded by flooding.[152][144][153]
Nitrogen
Generalization of percent soil nitrogen by soil order

Nitrogen is the most critical element obtained by plants from the soil and is a bottleneck in plant growth.[154] Plants can use the nitrogen as either the ammonium cation (NH4+) or the anion nitrate (NO3−). Nitrogen is seldom missing in the soil, but is often in the form of raw organic
material which cannot be used directly. The total nitrogen content depends on the climate, vegetation, topography, age and soil management. Soil nitrogen typically decreases by 0.2 to 0.3% for every temperature increase by 10 °C. Usually, more nitrogen is under grassland than under
forest. Humus formation promotes nitrogen immobilization. Cultivation decreases soil nitrogen by exposing soil to more air which the bacteria can use, and no-tillage maintains more nitrogen than tillage. Sand and gravel, as one of the most accessible natural resources, has been used
since the earliest days of civilization mostly as a construction material. At the beginning of the 20th century, the U.S. production of construction sand and gravel, the sand and gravel used mostly for construction purposes, was relatively small and its uses limited. Today, annual sand
and gravel production tonnage ranks second in the nonfuel minerals industry after crushed stone, and sand and gravel is the only mineral commodity produced in all 50 States. The United States is, in general, self-sufficient in sand and gravel, producing enough to meet all domestic
needs and to be a small net exporter mainly to consumption points along the United States-Canadian and United States-Mexican borders.

The demand for construction sand and gravel is determined mostly by the level of construction activity and therefore the demand for construction materials. U.S. production of construction sand and gravel recorded a significant growth in the last 40 years, from 320 million metric tons
in 1950 to 810 million metric tons in 1971 and 826 million metric tons in 1990. The highest level of production was reached in 1978--874 million metric tons. Between 1950 and 1966, mainly because of the construction of the Interstate Highway System, the growth in the production of
construction sand and gravel was almost continuous, paralleling the increased demand for construction aggregates. Following the reduction in the volume of work in the Interstate Highway Program in the late 1960's, the construction sand and gravel industry became more sensitive to
the ups and downs of the economy. The 1974-75 and 1982 recessions are reflected by low levels of production of construction sand and gravel in those years. Future demand for construction sand and gravel will continue to be dependent mostly on the growth of construction activity.

Construction sand and gravel is a high-volume, low-value commodity. The industry is highly competitive and is characterized by thousands of operations serving local or regional markets. Production costs vary widely depending on geographic location, the nature of the deposit, and
the number and type of products produced. Constant dollar unit values have been quite steady during the past 20 years. As a result of rising costs of labor, energy, and mining and processing equipment, the average unit price of construction sand and gravel increased from $1.10 per
metric ton, f.o.b. plant, in 1970 to $3.57 in 1990. However, the unit price in constant 1982 dollars fluctuated between $2.64 and $2.71 per metric ton for the same period. Increased productivity achieved through increased use of automation and more efficient equipment was mainly
responsible for maintaining the prices at this level. Constant dollar prices are expected to rise in the future because of decreased deposit quality and more stringent environmental and land use regulations.

Transportation is a major factor in the delivered price of construction sand and gravel. The cost of moving construction sand and gravel from the plant to the market often exceeds the sales price of the product at the plant. Because of the high cost of transportation, construction sand and
gravel continues to be marketed locally. Economies of scale, which might be realized if fewer, larger operations served larger marketing areas, would probably not offset the increased transportation costs. Truck haulage is the main form of transportation used in the construction sand
and gravel industry. Rail and water transportation combined account for about 10% to 20% of total construction sand and gravel shipments.

The industry also faces increasing competition from crushed stone that can substitute for sand and gravel in most of its applications. Stone operations are generally longer lived, can afford greater capital investment for higher efficiency, and are often located where competing land use
pressures are less severe. The topographically rugged stone-bearing areas are usually less desirable for construction purposes than sand-and-gravel-bearing areas, which are generally flatter.

Although construction sand and gravel resources are widespread and in adequate supply nationally, local shortages exist. Land use conflicts and environmental problems associated with rapid urban expansion are major factors contributing to these shortages. Demand pressures, land
use regulations, and the cost of meeting environmental and reclamation requirements are factors that will cause a rising price trend. Larger operations with more efficient equipment, more automation, and better planning and design will be the trend of the industry in the future. This will
permit increased use of less accessible and lower quality deposits and will keep prices at competitive levels.

Construction sand and gravel remains an abundant material, and, despite environmental, zoning, and regulatory restrictions, no major shortages at the national level are expected to occur in the future. At the same time, shortages in and near urban and industrialized areas, which
usually represent major markets, are expected to continue to increase.Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, rocks, sand, and wood, even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings.
Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic. The manufacture of building materials is an established industry in many countries and the use of these materials is typically segmented into specific speciRoad
Construction Methods have changed a lot since the first roads were built in about 4000 BC. Read on to learn more about road construction methods and procedures.

Appian Way

In ancient times, river transport was much faster and easier than road transport. The Romans were one of the first to build stone paved roads in North Africa and Europe to support their military operations. Later the Arabs built roads that were covered with tar. The roads were
constructed by preparing earthworks and lifting the road foundation at the center for water drainage. Road construction techniques gradually improved by the study of road traffic, stone thickness, road alignment, and slope gradients. Initial road construction materials were stones that
were laid in a regular, compact design, and covered with smaller stones to produce a solid layer.

The building techniques were simple but effective as they reduced the travel time considerably and connected one place to another by land. The Appian Way in Rome still exists although it was constructed 2300 years ago. If Roman roads are considered the beginning of road
construction, Telford Pavements are known as the second step of this process, followed by the Macadam Pavements that ultimately lead to the Bitumen Roads. Today, the concrete roads have added another dimension to stability and strength of the roadways.
Road Construction Techniques

Modern road construction involves the removal of geographic obstacles, and the use of new construction materials that are far more improved and durable. Rock and earth is removed by explosion or digging. Embankments, tunnels, and bridges are constructed, and then vegetation is
removed by deforestation, if necessary. Finally, the pavement material is laid by using a range of road construction equipment.

Roadways are basically designed and constructed for use by vehicles and pedestrians. Storm drainage and ecological considerations should be considered seriously. Sediments and erosion are controlled to avoid damaging effects. Drainage systems are constructed so that they
should be able to carry waste water to a waterway, stream, river, or the sea.

Importance of Earthwork

Earthwork is one of the major works involved in road construction. This process includes excavation, material removal, filling, compaction, and construction. Moisture content is controlled, and compaction is done according to standard design procedures. Normally, rock explosion at
the road bed is not encouraged. While filling a depression to reach the road level, the original bed is flattened after the removal of the topsoil. The fill layer is distributed and compacted to the designed specifications. This procedure is repeated until the compaction desired is reached.
The fill material should not contain organic elements, and possess a low index of plasticity. Fill material can include gravel and decomposed rocks of a particular size, but should not consist of huge clay lumps. Sand clay can be used. The area is considered to be adequately
compacted when the roller movement does not create a noticeable deformation. The road surface finish is reliant on the economic aspects, and the estimated usage.

Bulldozers are some of the most important items of equipment used in road construction. Since a bulldozer is expensive, economic usage factors should be considered when using one. Bulldozers are extremely useful for road construction where it is possible to throw the waste
excavated material on the road sides. Bulldozers may only be used if the slopes at the sides are not excessively steep. However, work on steep slopes can be accomplished by a bulldozer by using special techniques and expertise.

Construction of roads in challenging conditions is no more a difficult tasks because the binding agents and admixtures make it possible for the roads to last long and carry the heavy loads without cracking under tough environmental conditions. Use of recyclable materials for the
construction of roads has added balance to the enviroment too.
Construction Management of Roads

With ever increasing traffic and exponentially increasing vehicular load, construction management techniques have become the need of the hour. Managing maximum traffic in optimal space is what the world needs today. Safe designing of roads, highway space management and
proper drainage of water are major aspects that the site engineers have to take care of. Construction management includes putting all the pieces of puzzle together, defining project objectives, dividing the project into modules and optimizing the available resources. Time, money and
resource management are important aspects. Time saved is money earned, and that is where construction management techniques are helpful.
alty trades, such as carpentry, insulation, plumbing, and roofing work.  Sand and gravel, as one of the most accessible natural resources, has been used since the earliest days of civilization mostly as a construction material. At the beginning of the 20th century, the U.S. production of
construction sand and gravel, the sand and gravel used mostly for construction purposes, was relatively small and its uses limited. Today, annual sand and gravel production tonnage ranks second in the nonfuel minerals industry after crushed stone, and sand and gravel is the only
mineral commodity produced in all 50 States. The United States is, in general, self-sufficient in sand and gravel, producing enough to meet all domestic needs and to be a small net exporter mainly to consumption points along the United States-Canadian and United States-Mexican
borders.

The demand for construction sand and gravel is determined mostly by the level of construction activity and therefore the demand for construction materials. U.S. production of construction sand and gravel recorded a significant growth in the last 40 years, from 320 million metric tons
in 1950 to 810 million metric tons in 1971 and 826 million metric tons in 1990. The highest level of production was reached in 1978--874 million metric tons. Between 1950 and 1966, mainly because of the construction of the Interstate Highway System, the growth in the production of
construction sand and gravel was almost continuous, paralleling the increased demand for construction aggregates. Following the reduction in the volume of work in the Interstate Highway Program in the late 1960's, the construction sand and gravel industry became more sensitive to
the ups and downs of the economy. The 1974-75 and 1982 recessions are reflected by low levels of production of construction sand and gravel in those years. Future demand for construction sand and gravel will continue to be dependent mostly on the growth of construction activity.

Construction sand and gravel is a high-volume, low-value commodity. The industry is highly competitive and is characterized by thousands of operations serving local or regional markets. Production costs vary widely depending on geographic location, the nature of the deposit, and
the number and type of products produced. Constant dollar unit values have been quite steady during the past 20 years. As a result of rising costs of labor, energy, and mining and processing equipment, the average unit price of construction sand and gravel increased from $1.10 per
metric ton, f.o.b. plant, in 1970 to $3.57 in 1990. However, the unit price in constant 1982 dollars fluctuated between $2.64 and $2.71 per metric ton for the same period. Increased productivity achieved through increased use of automation and more efficient equipment was mainly
responsible for maintaining the prices at this level. Constant dollar prices are expected to rise in the future because of decreased deposit quality and more stringent environmental and land use regulations.

Transportation is a major factor in the delivered price of construction sand and gravel. The cost of moving construction sand and gravel from the plant to the market often exceeds the sales price of the product at the plant. Because of the high cost of transportation, construction sand and
gravel continues to be marketed locally. Economies of scale, which might be realized if fewer, larger operations served larger marketing areas, would probably not offset the increased transportation costs. Truck haulage is the main form of transportation used in the construction sand
and gravel industry. Rail and water transportation combined account for about 10% to 20% of total construction sand and gravel shipments.

The industry also faces increasing competition from crushed stone that can substitute for sand and gravel in most of its applications. Stone operations are generally longer lived, can afford greater capital investment for higher efficiency, and are often located where competing land use
pressures are less severe. The topographically rugged stone-bearing areas are usually less desirable for construction purposes than sand-and-gravel-bearing areas, which are generally flatter.

Although construction sand and gravel resources are widespread and in adequate supply nationally, local shortages exist. Land use conflicts and environmental problems associated with rapid urban expansion are major factors contributing to these shortages. Demand pressures, land
use regulations, and the cost of meeting environmental and reclamation requirements are factors that will cause a rising price trend. Larger operations with more efficient equipment, more automation, and better planning and design will be the trend of the industry in the future. This will
permit increased use of less accessible and lower quality deposits and will keep prices at competitive levels.

Construction sand and gravel remains an abundant material, and, despite environmental, zoning, and regulatory restrictions, no major shortages at the national level are expected to occur in the future. At the same time, shortages in and near urban and industrialized areas, which
usually represent major markets, are expected to continue to increase.In geotechnical engineering, soil compaction is the process in which a stress applied to a soil causes densification as air is displaced from the pores between the soil grains. When stress is applied that causes
densification due to water (or other liquid) being displaced from between the soil grains then consolidation, not compaction, has occurred. Normally, compaction is the result of heavy machinery compressing the soil, but it can also occur due to the passage of (e.g.) animal feet.

In soil science and agronomy, soil compaction is usually a combination of both engineering compaction and consolidation, so may occur due to a lack of water in the soil, the applied stress being internal suction due to water evaporation[1] as well as due to passage of animal feet.
Affected soils become less able to absorb rainfall, thus increasing runoff and erosion. Plants have difficulty in compacted soil because the mineral grains are pressed together, leaving little space for air and water, which are essential for root growth. Burrowing animals also find it a
hostile environment, because the denser soil is more difficult to penetrate. The ability of a soil to recover from this type of compaction depends on climate, mineralogy and fauna. Soils with high shrink-swell capacity, such as vertisols, recover quickly from compaction where moisture
conditions are variable (dry spells shrink the soil, causing it to crack). But clays which do not crack as they dry cannot recover from compaction on their own unless they host ground-dwelling animals such as earthwormIn construction

Soil compaction is a vital part of the construction process. It is used for support of structural entities such as building foundations, roadways, walkways, and earth retaining structures to name a few. For a given soil type certain properties may deem it more or less desirable to perform
adequately for a particular circumstance. In general, the preselected soil should have adequate strength, be relatively incompressible so that future settlement is not significant, be stable against volume change as water content or other factors vary, be durable and safe against
deterioration, and possess proper permeability.[2]

When an area is to be filled or backfilled the soil is placed in layers called lifts. The ability of the first fill layers to be properly compacted will depend on the condition of the natural material being covered. If unsuitable material is left in place and backfilled, it may compress over a long
period under the weight of the earth fill, causing settlement cracks in the fill or in any structure supported by the fill.[3] In order to determine if the natural soil will support the first fill layers, an area can be proofrolled. Proofrolling consists of utilizing a piece heavy construction equipment
(typically, heavy compaction equipment or hauling equipment) to roll across the fill site and watching for deflections to be revealed. These areas will be indicated by the development of rutting, pumping, or ground weaving.[4]

To ensure adequate soil compaction is achieved, project specifications will indicate the required soil density or degree of compaction that must be achieved. These specifications are generally recommended by a geotechnical engineer in a geotechnical engineering report.

The soil type - that is, grain-size distributions, shape of the soil grains, specific gravity of soil solids, and amount and type of clay minerals, present - has a great influence on the maximum dry unit weight and optimum moisture content.[5] It also has a great influence on how the
materials should be compacted in given situations. Compaction is accomplished by use of heavy equipment. In sands and gravels, the equipment usually vibrates, to cause re-orientation of the soil particles into a denser configuration. In silts and clays, a sheepsfoot roller is frequently
used, to create small zones of intense shearing, which drives air out of the soil.

Determination of adequate compaction is done by determining the in-situ density of the soil and comparing it to the maximum density determined by a laboratory test. The most commonly used laboratory test is called the Proctor compaction test and there are two different methods in
obtaining the maximum density. They are the standard Proctor and modified Proctor tests; the modified Proctor is more commonly used. For small dams, the standard Proctor may still be the reference.[4]

While soil under structures and pavements needs to be compacted, it is important after construction to decompact areas to be landscaped so that vegetation can grow.
Compaction methods

There are several means of achieving compaction of a material. Some are more appropriate for soil compaction than others, while some techniques are only suitable for particular soils or soils in particular conditions. Some are more suited to compaction of non-soil materials such as
asphalt. Generally, those that can apply significant amounts of shear as well as compressive stress, are most effective.

The available techniques can be classified as:

Static - a large stress is slowly applied to the soil and then released.
Impact - the stress is applied by dropping a large mass onto the surface of the soil.
Vibrating - a stress is applied repeatedly and rapidly via a mechanically driven plate or hammer. Often combined with rolling compaction (see below).
Gyrating - a static stress is applied and maintained in one direction while the soil is a subjected to a gyratory motion about the axis of static loading. Limited to laboratory applications.
Rolling - a heavy cylinder is rolled over the surface of the soil. Commonly used on sports pitches. Roller-compactors are often fitted with vibratory devices to enhance their effectiveness.
Kneading - shear is applied by alternating movement in adjacent positions. An example, combined with rolling compaction, is the 'sheepsfoot' roller used in waste compaction at landfills.

The construction plant available to achieve compaction is extremely varied and is described elsewhere.
Test methods in laboratory

Soil compactors are used to perform test methods which cover laboratory compaction methods used to determine the relationship between molding water content and dry unit weight of soils. Soil placed as engineering fill is compacted to a dense state to obtain satisfactory engineering
properties such as, shear strength, compressibility, or permeability. In addition, foundation soils are often compacted to improve their engineering properties. Laboratory compaction tests provide the basis for determining the percent compaction and molding water content needed to
achieve the required engineering properties, and for controlling construction to assure that the required compaction and water contents are achieved. Test methods such as EN 13286-2, EN 13286-47, ASTM D698, ASTM D1557, AASHTO T99, AASHTO T180, AASHTO T193, BS
1377:4 provide soil compaction testing procedures.[6]
Mason Sand: $ 38.00 yard delivered.
Mixed with the cement for the process of
laying brick. Used in mortor mix
.
Topsoil: $ 14.00 yard delivered.
Perfect for planting grass or filling holes in
your yard.
Fill Sand: $ 12.00 yard delivered.
Used for base of concrete flatwork.
Has small amounts of clay to aid compaction
Fill Dirt: $ 8.00 yard delivered.
Best used for driveways and foundations.
firm packing type dirt. Will compact tight.
Washed Sand: $ 14.00 yard delivered.
Clean Sand that is washed after removal from
lake. Horse arena, volleyball court etc
.
610 Limestone: $ 42.00 ton delivered.
Quarter size rock down to fine particles.
Great for new driveways on dirt surfaces.
#57 Limestone: $ 44.00 ton delivered.
Clean quarter size rock with no fines.
3x1 Limestone: $ 48.00 ton delivered.
Larger stone 3" by 1" roughly in size.
Construction entrances. muddy drive areas.
610 Crushed Concrete: $ 35.00 ton delivered
Quarter size rock down to fine particles.
Alternative to Limestone. Driveway/Walkway
Crushed Asphalt: $ 39.00 ton delivered.
Recycled driveway,walkway material.
Black color, Very little dust accumulation.
Proudly Serving Lafayette and The Surrounding Area
Contractors With Quality Fill Dirt, Sand and Gravel
(337) 342-5600
Sand, Gravel & Rock for
Residential or Commercial Projects.
Locally Owned.  Same Day Service Available!
Acadiana Regional Trucking
Limestone Hauling
Cheap Dirt
Payments Accepted
2012 Savoy rd.
Youngsville, LA 70592
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dump truck dirt
Acadiana Regional Trucking
Proudly Serving Lafayette and The Surrounding Area
Contractors With Quality Fill Dirt, Sand and Gravel
(337) 342-5600
dirt for dump truck
Sand, Gravel & Rock for
Residential or
Commercial Projects.
Proudly Serving Lafayette and The Surrounding Area
Cubic Yardage Calculator
Free Estimates-Call Now-(337)342-5600
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